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Thursday, May 16, 2013

The Delaware Tribe

The Delaware Tribe by Laney


The Delaware Tribe, or Lenni Lenape, paid a terrible price for the peace they wanted that
they never received.

The Delaware Tribe first made its home in northern Delaware and southwestern
Pennsylvania. When colonists came to America, some of the tribe decided to move west, so they
would not be bothered by the colonists. The rest of the tribe moved west under threats of
violence made by the colonists. The Delaware inadvertently intruded upon the Iroquois tribe
territory. The Iroquois forced the Delaware farther west into Ohio territory.

During the American Revolution, the Delaware Tribe was attacked many times, even
though they did their best to remain peaceful. In 1781, a Lenni Lenape village by the name of
Coshocton was attacked by about 300 Americans. Coshocton and another village nearby,
Licheneau, were destroyed. Fifteen Lenape warriors were captured and killed. Later that year, in
the Gnadenhutten Massacre, Pennsylvania militiamen attacked the tribe, and almost one hundred
peaceful Christian Delaware were taken to a concentration camp. The Americans believed that
the Delaware were responsible for raiding, but they were mistaken. The Delaware never raided
the Americans. The Delaware at the concentration camp were released in 1782. However, that
same year, Americans massacred the same peaceful Christian Lenape. The Lenape were praying,
and an American ranger used a cooper's mallet to brain many of the Lenape. Also, in 1782,
Americans attacked Lenape at Smokey Island, and the Americans destroyed Lenape artifacts.
The Delaware tribe suffered in many ways during the American Revolution.

The Delaware Tribe did their best to be neutral, but failed. The tribe split into three parts.
One sided with the English. Another part remained neutral. The last sided with the Americans.
The Lenape that sided with the Americans even fought for the Americans. The rest of the Lenape
feared losing their lands if the Americans won the War. After the War the Americans took the
Delaware Tribe even further west, across the Mississippi River. They reside today in Oklahoma.
Though broken by the American Revolution, the Delaware Tribe stays strong. Although
the Lenape lost so many lives during the War, the tribe now grows larger and stronger by the
year. Many people are now discovering that their family background lies with the Lenni Lenape.
Though not the kind they originally desired, the Lenape are finally able to live in peace.

Friday, May 3, 2013

Prudence Wright

Prudence Wright by Lauren


When Revolutionary-era men thought of the word strong, they typically think of women, but Prudence
Wright proved strength comes in many forms.

Very little is known about Prudence Wright's childhood. Wright was born on November
26, 1740. She had two brothers, Samuel and Thomas Cummings. They loved her very much, but
as they grew older she became a Patriot and her brothers became Loyalists.

Wright is best known for a daring act she pursued one night. She and a few friends heard
a British message was coming to Pepperell, Massachusetts. So they put on their husbands
clothes, grabbed some weapons, and hid under the Pewett bridge. Eventually they heard Captain
Whiting and Samuel Cummings. They jumped out, stole the message they were carrying and set
them free on terms that they leave the colony. No one knows what the message said.

Prudence Wright died young, at the age of forty-two in the year of 1824.

Thursday, May 2, 2013

William Dawes

William Dawes by Paige

William Dawes's modesty cost him a place in history and the recognition he deserves.

Little is known about Dawes's childhood, but what is known is positive. In 1745 in Boston, Massachusetts, William Dawes was born to William and Lydia Dawes. He became a
tanner and got married. At his wedding, he wore a suit made entirely in America to show that he was a Patriot.

Dawes's role in the Revolutionary War is not known by many people. Assigned by Dr. Joseph Warren, William Dawes took off on April 18, 1775 for his Midnight ride with Paul Revere. The Midnight ride was a mission to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock that the British were trying to arrest them. He also warned the militia that the British were coming so
they had time to prepare. Dawes and Revere made it from Boston to Lexington, but Revere soon
got arrested. The British started to chase Dawes. He knew his horse was too tired to run very far,
so he pulled up to a farm house and tricked the British into thinking that he lead them into an
ambush.

After the war, William Dawes had a peaceful life. Dawes was ordered to join an
expedition against American Indians. Dawes thought this was not necessary, and he refused.
Dawes died in 1799, at age fifty-three. He was buried in his hometown, Boston, soon after his
death.

Though not recognized by many, William Dawes's role in the revolution saved lives, and
helped us win the war.

Wednesday, May 1, 2013

Esther Reed

Esther Reed by Caroline
All though little is known about Esther Reed, she sewed through fabric and through the hearts of the grateful American soldiers.

Esther Reed had a very pleasant childhood. She was born on October 22, 1746 in London. She had a happy family, and loved to read. She lived in a wonderful house. She married Joseph Reed on May 31, 1770.

Esther Reed played a simple, yet important role in the Revolutionary war. She was the leader of a group called The Ladies Association of Philadelphia. They collected money and made clothes for soldiers. In all she collected $7000, and made 2000 shirts for soldiers.

When she died in 1780, Sarah Franklin Bache took Esther Reed's place, and became the leader of the group. Esther Reed changed the way people saw women. She inspired women to help out in the Revolutionary war.

Esther Reed sewed the clothes of freedom, that the soldiers wore winning the battles, and freedom itself. All though she may not still be with us, Esther Reed taught us that just a little needle and thread can go a long way.


  

Deborah Sampson, Soldier (Tess)

Deborah Sampson by Tess

Deborah Sampson was not an average house wife. She was born on December 17, 1760. She had a very depressing childhood. When she was little, her father abandoned her family to fight in the Revolutionary war. A few months later, he died at sea. Soon, her mother became very ill and could not take care of the kids, so she sent the all away to become indentured servants.

During the Revolutionary War, Sampson did something that no one thought a women would do. She dressed up as a man and enlisted herself in the military. She chose to fight under the name "Robert Shirtiff". Everything was going as planned until she was shot in the leg. She knew that if she let the doctor heal her, he would find out her secret. She knew the only way to save her secret was to pull the bullet out of her leg herself. Soon, she was injured again, and the doctor found out that she was a women.

He sent her home, without letting her finish her time in the war. Soon she became a teacher, and fell in love with a man named Benjamin Gannett. Together, they had three children, Earl, Mary and Patience, and adopted one little girl name Susanna. Sampson died on April 29, 1827 at age sixty-six, in Sharon, Massachusetts.


Daughters of Liberty, Ferocious Patriots

Daughters of Liberty by Greta
The Daughters of Liberty were women who were ferocious with a spinning wheel and furious with the British.

The birth of The Daughters of Liberty formed in 1765. They supported American resistance and boycotted British goods. They even made their own goods so that British goods were not needed.

Like many secret clubs at the time, The Daughters of Liberty had many rituals. They had secret code words and medals. They also had confidential symbols. The Daughters had these in their group so when they were carrying messages the British couldn't listen in. In January 1770, 538 Boston women (including The Daughters Of Liberty) signed an agreement, vowing not to drink tea as long as it was taxed. Proving their commitment to "the cause of liberty and industry," they openly opposed the Tea Act of 1773, and experimented to find substitutes for tea. Discoveries like boiled basil leaves to make a tea-like drink helped lift spirits.

Their main activity was "Spinning Bees". The Daughters held this event to see who could spin the fastest. The main purpose of the "Spinning Bees" was to block all materials imported from England. Mostly women attended, but sometimes men did too.

Even though The Daughters of Liberty ended, they were still known for their actions, for example, the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act was passed by the British Parliament on March 22, 1765. The new tax was imposed on all American colonists and required them to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used. Ship's papers, legal documents, licenses, newspapers, other publications, and even playing cards were taxed. These women helped the Boston Tea Party. The Boston Tea Party of December 16, 1773, took place when a group of Massachusetts Patriots, protesting the monopoly on American tea importation recently granted by Parliament to the East India Company, seized 342 chests of tea in a midnight raid on three tea ships and threw them into the harbor.

They were American Patriots, Northern and Southern, young and old. They were The Daughters of Liberty.



Lydia Darragh


Lydia Darragh by Tatum

Sometimes great contributions to help one's country are made with just a few words.

Little is known about Lydia Darragh's early life. Darragh was born in 1728, in Dublin, Ireland. She married William Darragh in 1753 at the age of twenty-four. She immigrated to America, where she settled in Philadelphia before the Revolutionary War.

All because of Darragh, George Washington's army was prepared for a British ambush. Darragh was a Quaker, so the British wanted to use her household for meetings.  At one meeting, the British demanded that the whole family stay in one bedroom. Suspicious, Darragh snuck out of the room and hid in a chamber closet. In the closet, she overheard about an ambush on Washington's army. Hearing signs of the meeting concluding, she scurried back to the bedroom and pretended to be asleep. They knocked on the door, but when she opened, they did not suspect anything was wrong. The next morning, she announced that she needed flour. Instead, she delivered the information to a General, who she didn't believe would report back to Whitemarsh. Washington's troop was ready for the ambush on December, 1777, and turned a British victory into a disappointment.
            
After the war, Lydia lived a normal life. Her husband died in 1783. In 1786, she moved to a new house and ran a store. Darragh then died on December 28, 1789. In 1827, her daughter Ann published a book on her mother's spy work.

Darragh's courage throughout the war proved that women can be just as good as men.
             

Tuesday, April 30, 2013

Crispus Attucks (Ashley M.)


Crispus Attucks by Ashley M.

Crispus Attucks was the spark that started the Revolutionary fire.

Little is known about Crispus Attucks' childhood. Attucks was born in 1723 in Boston
Massachusetts. His mother was American Indian and his father African-American. An enslaved person, Attucks's  life up until twenty-seven is a mystery. After twenty-seven,  he ran away from his home and was a sailor,whaler and rope-maker.

Attucks was the first victim to die in the Revolutionary War, but he had a larger role. The afternoon of the Massacre, Attucks was at a pub with fellow sailors. He and the group argued with an off-duty British soldier about the British soldiers taking jobs from the sailors. Later that evening, Attucks gathered Patriots at Dock Square and led them towards King Street. Passionate about his cause,he riled up the crowd and told them to attack the sentinel on guard at the Boston Customs House. He challenged the group to fire as he grabbed the bayonet and musket of Captain Preston and was shot.

Crispus Attucks was killed in the Boston Massacre. Attucks died on March 5, 1770, in
Boston, Massachusetts. After he died, a trial was held for the British soldiers who were in the Boston Massacre.  Instead of Independence Day, they would show a flag that was made for the victims.
Crispus Attucks deserves to be remembered as the first person to give up his life for a
better future.

Crispus Attucks (by Carly)

Crispus Attucks by Carly


Many know Crispus Attucks as the first African-American to be killed in the
Revolutionary War, but he has a much more complicated story.

Little is known about Attucks's childhood. Attucks was born in Framingham,
Massachusetts in 1723, but the exact date is not known. His family was his mother, his father, his sister Pheobe, and his unnamed baby brother who died of a fever the day he was born. He was a slave growing up and he ran away from his owner, William Brown of Framingham. When
Attucks escaped from Brown, Brown reported Attucks as "twenty seven-years old, six foot two, tall, short brown curly hair, and knock-kneed."

Crispus Attucks had a major role leading up to the Revolutionary War and not many
people are familiar with the exact events surrounding the Boston Massacre. Attucks gathered a crowd of Patriots on a dock in the Port of Boston. Attucks gave a rousing speech and led the group up King Street, charging straight toward the main guard. Attucks and the other colonists were teasing the British soldiers and throwing rocks and sticks at them. Attucks and the other men were yelling, "Fire, why will you not fire at us?" Attucks went to grab a soldier's musket and was shot.

After the Massacre, Attucks was honored by the city of Boston. A little while later, there
was a statue built in honor of Attucks. He is considered to be first African-American to be killed in the
Revolutionary War, though the Boston Massacre occurred before the war began.

Attucks was very brave and inspiring to some people. He died March 5,1770 and was buried in Faneuil Hall and his body was there until March 8, 1770 and then he was
buried in a common graveyard.

His parents both died soon after him and his sister lived ten more years until she passed
away, also. Crispus Attucks was a hero, not only the first to be shot in the Boston Massacre, but a
very strong leader too.

Prince Estabrook, Unsung Hero

Prince Estabrook by Stephani

Prince Estabrook is truly an unrecognized hero. Brave and bold, his story deserves to be told.

Prince Estabrook's childhood was different than the majority of enslaved peoples. Estabrook's father was of African descent and was third in line for the throne. It was because of
his fathers background that Estabrook was named Prince. Prince was born in 1740 in Africa and
brought to America at the mere age of fourteen to be sold at a slave auction. He was purchased by Benjamin Estabrook, who gave Prince his last name. Benjamin did not think of Prince as a
slave, he thought of him as an adoptive son. Prince had a secret love of playing cards. Sometimes he would play with Benjamin's son. Prince also always wanted to fight amongst George Washington's Militia.

Estabrook, who I will now refer to as Prince, was the first enslaved person to fight in
the American Revolution in the Battle of Lexington. He was also the first man to be shot in the
official war and suffered a gunshot wound to his left shoulder. One story of Prince in the
revolution is unusual. At five o'clock in the morning, Prince heard the war horns blow. This
meant only one thing, the British were coming! He grabbed his musket and bolted out the door.
He fought side by side with his comrades and they won the skirmish. It was only after the
conflict was over that he realized he was still in his nightcap and pajamas.
Prince enjoyed a kind relationship with Benjamin. Benjamin treated him with dignity
and respect and gave him shelter in a one room log cabin with a fireplace in it next to the main
residence. He also gave Prince a one person bed, a dining table and a food cupboard with
detailed dishes. In addition, Benjamin paid him one pence a week for his labor and never beat
him. This was a significant contrast to the way most slaves were treated at that time. Many of
Prince's friends who were slaves lived in horse stables, were not paid, were not fed well and were
beaten.

There was only one time when Benjamin was disappointed with Prince. One day,
Prince received permission to go and get food for Benjamin. On his way home he met a woman
on the side of the road. The woman was sick and elderly. She told him that her old master would
whip her and threaten her so she ran away from him. After that, no one wanted her to work for
them. At that moment he realized that the world he was living in was the opposite of how he
lived. He graciously offered the food he purchased with Benjamin's money. She refused at first
but he insisted she take it. She finally accepted his offer and asked him to take one of her
possessions. He initially declined but eventually chose a porcelain decorated egg. When Prince
returned home he explained what happened to Benjamin. Unfortunately, Benjamin did not
believe him and assumed he spent the money on the egg. Infuriated, Benjamin grabbed the egg
and smashed it on the ground. Prince was crushed. Shortly afterwards, Benjamin apologized for
his actions and as a recompense, allowed Prince to go to the village and participate in a card
game.

After Prince's service to the Continental Army, Benjamin granted him his freedom.
Although he was a free man, he chose to remain with the Estabrook family. Two months after
Mrs. Estabrook died, Benjamin went to war and was shot. Prince acted as a nurse, caring for
Benjamin until his last breath. After Benjamin died, Prince still remained with the family and
cared for them. Prince Estabrook never married and died at the age of ninety in 1830. He is
buried in the graveyard behind the First Parish Church Unitarian-Universalist in Ashby,
Massachusetts. In 2008 he was honored by the city of Lexington with a monument erected in
front of Buckman Tavern as being the first African combatant of the American Revolution.
Prince Estabrook was courageous and fought for freedom from British tyranny. He was
also kind, nurturing and cared for those he loved. He was, beyond doubt, one of the unsung
heroes of the American Revolution.

Phillis Wheatley, Poet (by Erin)

Phillis Wheatley by Erin


Phillis Wheatley's poetry rang out about her beliefs and what she stood for.

Phillis Wheatley had a childhood in America that other African-Americans could only hope
for. She was bought at an auction in the June of 1761 by Susannah Wheatley at age seven. When she
arrived at the Wheatley mansion, they treated her like one of their own children! They gave her a
bath when African-Americans were expected to provide their own way of cleaning themselves.
They also gave her some of their own clothes to wear. However, she was still a slave. The most
shocking privilege was that she got an education, and learned how to read and write. During her
learning experience she discovered her intriguing love for writing. This was the spark of her
Revolutionary Fire as a poet.

By writing a poem to General George Washington, Phillis Wheatley proved to him that
African-Americans were loyal and obedient, like a soldier should be. Washington had a kind
soul, but he still had slaves. The main reason was because he was afraid that the African-
Americans might resort to revenge with a musket at hand. During the war, Phillis Wheatley had
been writing poems and plays that reflected on how the Loyalists bested the British in the war.
Many lives were lost in the war everyday.Washington was racking his brain to find a way to have
more men. That's where Phillis Wheatley comes in. There were plenty of healthy and fit African-
Americans right under his nose.So she decided to write a poem to Washington. He was so moved
that he allowed African-Americans to fight in the war. To guarantee their support, he said any enslaved soldiers would be free after the Revolution. This was the ultimate payment for fighting in the war. Some stayed behind thinking the Loyalists would send them back to slavery. I think Phillis Wheatley brought
reinforcements to the army indirectly and that was a major help to our victory against the British.

The war had changed many lives in many ways, both good and bad. Wheatley's went downhill
a little after the war. She married a free black grocer by the name of John Peters. She eventually
became pregnant with two children. Unfortunately, they both died within the hour. Her fame had
also died down. She tried to publish another volume of poetry, but it failed to gain interest. She
became pregnant again and her husband was gone, in jail for a petty crime. She tried to manage herself on her own, but she barely survived in her state of condition. When the time came for her baby to be born,
she died giving birth. The child died a few hours later.

Phillis Wheatley had a strong voice that was was heard through her poetry. That voice will
continue to ring in the hearts of those who love and appreciate poetry.

Monday, April 29, 2013

Agrippa Hull, Continental Army soldier



Agrippa Hull by Christina D.

Agrippa Hull broke many African American stereotypes associated with the Revolutionary era.

Agrippa Hull had a difficult childhood. Hull was born free in Northampton, Massachusetts on March 7, 1759. Hull's father died when Hull was a toddler. When Hull was five, his mother sent him to Stockbridge, Massachusetts with a former African American servant named Joab. There, he lived with a free black farming family.

Agrippa Hull deserves just as much recognition as any other soldier in the Revolutionary
War. He enlisted into the Continental Army at age eighteen, and Hull served six years and two
months in the war. Hull had seen the the surrender of the British General John Burgoyne during the winter of 1777-1778 at Valley Forge. Hull was in the most intense phase of the war in North Carolina in 1780. By the time the southern part of the war ended in May 1883, Agrippa Hull had been in nearly every important battle. For his long service and bravery he earned a badge of
honor. He had served as a Patriot.

Agrippa Hull had had a good life after the war. After fighting, Hull moved back to
Stockbridge. Hull bought an acre of land just across the Housatonic river, then extending it with
more and more land being bought. Eventually, he became Stockbridge's largest black landowner.
Later, he married Jane Darby, and had four children. He died in Stockbridge, Massachusetts on
May 21, 1848 at age ninety-one.

Agrippa Hull was a very devoted patriot and he risked his life time and time again. He
had been in some of the most important fighting in the Revolutionary War.
Hull had been in almost every large battle proving that African Americans were just as important
to the Patriotic cause as everybody else.

Friday, April 26, 2013

Martha Bell, Spy

Martha Bell by Raeyan


Although her reasons for being a spy were rooted in revenge, Martha Bell's important role in the Revolution cannot be denied.

Before the American Revolution, little is known about Martha Bell's childhood. Martha
McFarland was born in 1735 in present-day Alamance County. Her maiden name, McFarland, indicates that she has Scottish-Irish ancestry. McFarland got married to Colonel John McGee in 1759, a widower with two children, Samuel and Elizabeth. They had five children named John, Andrew, William, Jane or Jean, and Susannah. Colonel McGee died in 1773. Martha McGee became the richest widow in her county. She married William Bell on May 6, 1779 and became Martha Bell. Bell would travel day and night serving as a nurse and a midwife to people in the countryside.

Martha Bell contributed to the American Revolution by being a spy for the Patriots with
clever excuses for coming to the Loyalists camps. In addition to being a spy, Bell let General
Cornwallis's troops stay at her mill, as long as General Cornwallis didn't burn her mill. Two days
after General Cornwallis's troops left, some Patriots asked Bell to be a spy. The Patriots needed
to know how many soldiers General Cornwallis had and if more soldiers were coming. She was
happy to help. Bell would complain to the generals that the soldiers "stole" items from her mill
while they were there. While the generals questioned the soldiers, Bell would record how many
weapons the British had, how many people are injured, how many more soldiers are coming,
and what kind weapons the British had. This information was given to the Patriots to help plan
their next attack. After that, Bell continued to be a spy. Whenever Bell was stopped by a Loyalist,
she lied and said she was a midwife on her way to deliver a baby.

Martha Bell lived for forty more years after the American Revolution ended. Not much is
known about what happened in those forty years. Bell died peacefully a year before her husband
on September 9, 1820 at the age of eighty-five.

To conclude, Martha Bell may have been a heroine to seek revenge, but Martha Bell's
role in the American Revolution deserves to be recognized.

Deborah Sampson, Soldier and Daughter of Liberty

Deborah Sampson by Sophie W.


Some people thought that men could only fight in war, but Deborah Sampson proved them wrong. She went to war for many reasons, but she thought that the men needed help.

Deborah Sampson had a difficult childhood. She was born on December 17, 1760 in Massachusetts. She became an indentured servant in 1770 and was very poor. Sampson was the oldest of six children. Her brother left their family when she was very young. Since she was a servant, she lived in many houses. She
lived in one house from ages ten to sixteen. In every house, she learned many things, such as sewing, nursing, reading, writing, and farming . Deborah Sampson married Benjamin Ganet on April 7, 1785, and they had three children.

Sampson had a special role in the Revolutionary War. On May 20, 1782 Deborah Sampson went to war disguised as a man to proved that women could
fight, and to help America win the war. She changed her name to "Robert" to
help pass as a man. Trying to pass at her home town wasn't as easy as she
thought. When she was at the desk the lady recognized a ring on her finger and
told her what she had heard over and over again " are you crazy, women can not
fight in war". However she tried to get in elsewhere and was approved to go to
war. In her first battle on July 13, 1782 she was struck by a bullet in her head and
leg. Her fellow soldiers were very worried and rode her to the hospital. When
she was at the hospital she only let them look at her head but not her leg.
Sampson took out the bullet in her leg by herself. A couple years later, she had a
serious illness, and this time the doctor had to remove her clothes and found she
was a woman. But the doctor kept it a secret because he knew she was helping
his country and with more people they had a greater chance. Her former life as a
servant helped Sampson be a successful soldier. She helped sew clothes even
though she was a "man", she nursed , and helped report commands from the
commander. On November third she got to go back home to Massachusetts after
serving for seventeen months.

Sampson changed many things for many women. Deborah Sampson's
strong soul was her motivation. She thought that the men needed some help and
she was the one to it. She had a significant impact for women to fight in the war.
She was part of the Daughters Of Liberty, and she felt very strong about civil
rights. George Washington congratulated her with a Medal of Honor when he
found out what she had done. She made many speeches about her time in war,
and about her desire for women to be equal to men. There is now a statue of her
next to the public library in Sharon, Massachusetts. Deborah Sampson took her
last breath on April 28, 1827.

Lots of women fight in war now, and Deborah Sampson had an impact on
that. Hopefully at the end of serving she felt like she had helped the men in the
war and accomplished something.

Polly Cooper

Polly Cooper by Su Shen
Polly Cooper cooked up strength and perseverance for the American soldiers.

Little is known about Polly Cooper's childhood, but we know for sure the she was born into the Oneida tribe.

Polly Cooper contributed in the war by helping George Washington's sick, starving, and suffering soldiers. Cooper is known to be the mother of this country. Chief Shenendoah sent Polly Cooper with forty other warriors to deliver 600 hundred baskets of corn to the starving soldiers at Valley Forge. Cooper decided to stay at Valley Forge when she saw how much the troops were suffering. She made special medicine for the sick and wounded. She taught the soldiers how to cook the corn, and she cooked for them as well. Cooper also brought water to the soldiers as they were fighting, because most of them were dehydrated. She must of been very brave and caring to do that.

Polly Cooper's contribution to the war may have changed people's perspective of American Indians. People back then thought American Indians weren't civilized. After they saw her teaching the soldiers how to cook and made special medicine, people may have thought the American Indian's were more civilized than they thought they were. She believed that all men have mothers, and mothers didn't send their sons out to kill other mothers' sons. Cooper would not accept money as payment for taking care of the soldiers. The officers wives took Cooper a walk downtown. She saw a black shawl and thought it was beautiful. The officers bought it for her and it is now known as Polly Cooper's shawl.

Polly Cooper sacrificed the company of her friends and family in her tribe for a few years to help George Washington's soldiers.


Sally St. Claire, Soldier and Trailblazer

Sally St. Claire by Micaela


Sally St. Claire is a woman who fought strongly in the Revolutionary War and
died a loyal death.

Not much is known about the childhood of St. Claire, the only things known are
about her adulthood and how she wound up in the war. Some women did this because they loved
their husbands and others did it to protect their country, or to prove that they can and will fight in
wars. St. Claire was very confident of herself, proving her confidence by joining the war which
was illegal back then. Also, she was very good at keeping secrets because no one knew that she
was a women until her death.

The war was very hard for St. Claire, but she got through it. It was difficult
because she had to pretend she was a person she was not, which is never easy. St. Claire had to
cut her hair, dress in men's clothes so she could join the army to fight with her husband. It was
hard to go to the bathroom in private and the real challenge was when she became injured and
doctors had to examine her. The only part that was easy was that she slept in uniform and rarely
bathed, so, she would not be exposed to other men in the same room.

Unfortunately St. Claire did not live after the Revolutionary War. Her husband
died before she did, but they both died the same day in The Battle of the Savannah in 1778 which
is also known as the British Capture of Savannah. Fought on December 29th between local
American Patriot Militia and the Continental Army. The American Patriot Militia was made of
American Patriots that fought as an irregular army of nonprofessional soldiers. The Continental
Army was established by a resolution of the Continental Congress passed on June 14th, 1755.
St. Claire died in battle, shortly after her husband died from a bullet wound. When her husband
died, she fired the cannon that he was using until she was also shot. The soldiers were very
surprised when they found out she was a women because of how extraordinary she was in the
war. She was very good at keeping her secrets, because everyone found out that she was a female
when she passed away.

Although little is known of St. Claire, the little bit of information that is available
is amazing, it definitely proves that women should have been able to fight from the start

Joseph Brant/Thayendanagea


Joseph Brant by Sarah M. 

Joseph Brant was a courageous American Indian who was determined to fight for
his country.

Brant had a fairly good childhood. He was born in 1742 in Ohio with the name
Thayendanagea, which means "two sticks bound together for strength." Before he was eleven,
his father passed away. After the tragedy, Brant, his mother, and his sister moved to New York.
He attended Moor's Charity School for Indians in Lebanon. His sister, Molly, married Sir
William Johnson who led Brant into the British Army at age fifteen during the Seven Years War.

Brant had a important role in the Revolutionary War because he was a courageous
leader. The Mohawk Tribe joined with the British because their lands were being taken over by
American settlers and the military and they wanted them off their land. The British promised him
that after the war he would be given land in Quebec. He met with many important politicians
and traveled to London to meet with King George III. He attacked colonial outposts in New
York. He also took part in the Cherry Valley Massacre where many American settlers were
killed. Soon, it was clear that the British would lose the war, and Brant no longer took part in
these important actions.

Brant had a peaceful life after the war. He moved to Canada with his tribe and
was rewarded a grant of land for his service in the war as promised. He ruled over The Mohawk
Indian tribe who settled there with him. He raised continued his missionary work and raised
funds for the first Episcopal church in upper Canada.

Brant's courageous actions led him into a successful life where he earned the
respect of the Mohawk Indians. The most important lesson Brant learned was how to be a true
leader. Even though Brant's country lost the battle, he was greatly respected for the role he
played in the war.

Rachel and Grace Martin, Everyday Heroes


Rachel and Grace Martin by Elena Riel

Rachel and Grace Martin are two women who risked their lives for America's
independence.

There is very little information about sister-in-laws Rachel and Grace Martin,
but we do know that they were raised in South Carolina. Grace's father, Benjamin
Waring, and Rachel's father, Henry Clay, both fought in the Revolutionary War. When
Grace was fourteen, she married William Martin. Grace Waring's father, Benjamin
Waring, was one of the earliest settlers of Columbia, South Carolina. Rachel did not have
any children but Grace gave birth to three children.

Rachel and Grace Martin risked their lives to serve their country. Their husbands
were fighting in the Revolutionary War. Dressed up in their husbands clothes Rachel and Grace
Martin hid in a bush where two british soldiers were passing by with an important dispatch. they
had guns from their husbands and took the two British soldiers off guard. They took hold of the
dispatch and delivered it to General Greene . That night the same soldiers stayed overnight in the
Martin's house and left in the morning. The soldiers questioned them if they saw two men with a
dispatch. The soldiers never knew they were the ones who stopped the dispatch.
After the war ended, women still didn't have the same rights as men. The American
government found out what Rachel and Grace did and it encouraged other women to do brave
acts. The plot was the only big accomplishment they had and after the war they settled down.
Both their husbands died fighting in the war.

Rachel and Grace Martin showed other women that they do deserve rights. They
deserve to be admired because they were strong and brave to go on such an audacious mission

Sarah Franklin Bache, Patriot


Sarah Franklin Bache by Hailey

Although not many people know Benjamin Franklin had a daughter, Sarah Franklin
Bache was just as powerful with the needle as her father was with the pencil.

There is not much known about Bache's childhood, but from the little that is known, it
appears to have been positive. Around the age of six or seven, Bache was told that she was a very
talented harpsichordist. Bache had always loved music and reading, ever since she was a little
child. Around that time, people also called her by her nickname, Sally. Bache was born on
October 11, 1743 in Philadelphia. Thirty four years later, in 1767 on October 29, Bache got
married to a man named Richard Bache.

Bache was an ardent Patriot, and because of that, she helped the Continental Army. Bache
was apart of a women's society called the Ladies Association of Philadelphia. The leader of the
organization, was Esther Reed. After Esther Reed died, Sarah Franklin Bache became the head of
the union in 1780. She and a few other women began collecting money, and then donating it to
the Continental Army. Also, they made two thousand two hundred garments for the Patriot army
during the winter.

After the Revolutionary War, Sarah Bache led a peaceful and ordinary life. She had eight
children and named most of them after some of her family members. During 1785 or 1786, her
father, Benjamin Franklin, died. In 1794, she and her family moved to a farm in Pennsylvania.
Bache died on October 5, 1808.

Sarah Franklin Bache was a one of a kind woman, and because of her warm heart, she
made her small acts make a difference.

Thursday, April 25, 2013

Absalom Jones, Founding Father

Absalom Jones, Founding Father by Laila H.


Absalom Jones was truly an extraordinary man for his time. Although he was born into slavery, he did not allow his "slave status" to prevent him from accomplishing truly remarkable things as an adult. In addition, he did not allow his position to define who he was or what he could become in life.

Absalom Jones was an African-American born on November 6, 1746 in Sussex, Delaware. When he was sixteen years old, he was sold to a storeowner in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by the name of Mr. Wynkoop. Fortunately, for Jones, he was blessed to be around a store clerk who taught him how to write. This was the start of unlimited possibilities for Jones.

On January 4, 1770 at the age of twenty-three, Jones married another slave by the  name of Mary King. He was always determined to change his enslaved status. By 1778, he purchased his wife's freedom so that their children would be free and not be labelled with the " slave status." By 1785, he was triumphant in purchasing his own freedom. With a new status of "freed slave," his future possibilities began to grow.

Absalom Jones became a minister for black members in the interracial church known as St. George's Methodist Church. In 1787, Jones, along with Richard Allen, founded the Free African Society which was to help newly freed slaves in Philadelphia.  At the  beginning of 1791, Jones started holding religious services at Free African Society which became the start of a new church. Wanting to establish a black church independent of white control, Jones in 1792 founded the African Church. On July 17, 1794, this church became the first African Episcopal Church. This became an opportunity for Jones to speak out about anti-slavery during his sermons. Jones was ordained as a deacon in 1795 and as a priest in 1804. He was the first African American priest in the Episcopal Church. He became a bishop in 1816. Jones used his new position to allow him to fight for anti-slavery laws at the time of the Revolutionary War.
     
Throughout his life, Absalom Jones demonstrated determination. He always took advantage of his opportunities to create change and to do what was right. He never allowed his born slave status define him. Even though he did not really have a military role in the war or an actual role, Jones was truly an extraordinary man who can be viewed as a hero to me for his magnificent accomplishments.    


Wednesday, April 24, 2013

John Marrant, Abolitionist and Founding Father

John Marrant by Bianca
John Marrant was a powerful abolitionist and founding father who overcame many
challenges to help improve the lives of others.

We know quite a lot about John Marrant's childhood. He had many hardships. Born free
in New York City on June 15, 1755. Marrant's father passed away when Marrant was very
young. After his father died, Marrant and his mother moved to Charleston, North Carolina. His
mother really wanted him to be able to read and write and so Marrant was literate by eleven
years old. Instead of continuing to concentrate on academics, he set his heart on playing the
violin and French Horn. One day, on his way to a concert when he was fourteen years old, he
decided to drop in at a local meeting place where a vast crowd gathered to hear a famous
preacher, George Whitefield. He was planning to play a prank by loudly tooting his horn but
before he had a chance, he heard the preachers words, took them to heart, and became Methodist.
His family disapproved of his new religion, so he headed out into the wilderness.

John Marrant did not have a great life during the American Revolution. Marrant forgave
his family for not excepting his religion and he decided to return back home. On his way home
Marrant was kidnapped by the British Navy. He was forced to play as a musician for them. He
had to perform music for seven years and he was not released until the war was over. This
experience had a great impact on Marrant and shaped his abolitionist thought.
John Marrant had a much better life after the American Revolution was over. He became
a Methodist minister. Marrant became a mason in African-American lodge, 459. He was the
chaplain of the lodge. He delivered a powerful antislavery sermon at the lodge in celebration of
Saint John. His sermon was published along with his autobiography.

 John Marrant died on April 15, 179, a man who was inspired in the Revolution by his experience to become a powerful
abolitionist and founding father.

Edward Hector, Soldier

Edward Hector by Ashley W.

Edward Hector thought that being a soldier was about following the rules, but sometimes it is about doing the right thing.

Not much is known about Hector's childhood. All we know is he was born in 1744.

Hector was one of the 5,000 African-Americans who served in the Revolutionary War. He was a wagoneer at the Battle of Brandywine. He manned cannons in Colonel Proctor's 3rd
Pennsylvania artillery regiment. In the late afternoon of September 11, 1777, The British and Hessians started to take over the American positions on the east side of Brandywine. Then, the
order was given to abandon everything and "save yourself". All the soldiers did what was told and fled the battlefield. But not Hector. He said, "the enemy shall not have my team; I shall save my horses and myself." He picked up some of the fallen guns and bravely fought off the British,
then escaped with his wagon.

After the war was over, Hector did not receive anything. We know that Hector was
never granted a pension, but years later he received a reward of forty dollars from a "grateful"
Pennsylvania Legislature. Nobody knew if Hector married. He lived in the Norristown area
where he died at about ninety. The date he died was Friday, January 3rd, 1834. Edward Hector
did not just save his own life, he saved thousands.

Rebecca Willets, Everyday Hero

Rebecca Willets by Diana H.

When people think of the Revolutionary War, people think of men. Rebecca Stillwell Willets was one of the many people who made a small contribution that was part of a larger effort to
defeat the British and she was a woman.

Very little is known about Rebecca Stillwell Willets' childhood. What we do know is that she was born in New Jersey around 1750, though exact date is not known. We also know that she was the daughter of Captain Nicolas Willets, who was a captain in the American Military in the Revolutionary War. Willets also had a sister, Sarah Willets.

One day, in the midst of the Revolutionary War, Willets saw a British ship heading in the direction of her small town in New Jersey. She knew that the British were up to no good, and she
knew that she must do something to keep them away. Willets quickly glanced around for
something with which to scare the British. She found a cannon and decided to fire it at the ship.
Boom! The cannon went right over the heads of the British, who realized that they were not safe
in that location. They turned their ship around and sailed away. Willets saved her little
community in New Jersey from danger.

There is no information about Willets after the war. Maybe she became more involved in
war, perhaps helping her father. Perhaps she lived a normal life with her family.

As you can see, Willets helped her town a great amount. I think that she was a very strong
and brave person to fire a cannon at the British. Rebecca Willets was not just a woman, she was a
hero.

Bucks of America, African-American Military Company

Bucks of America by Skye

Strong, courageous, brave. These are three words to describe the Bucks of America, a military company, all African-American, who joined the Patriots in the Revolutionary War.

Few people know when the Bucks formed. Though the group was large, there is only one named member, George Middleton. Some of the members may have been part of the Prince Hall Freemasonry Lodge. The members came from several different backgrounds. A few were free men. Many were former slaves. Plenty were slaves enrolled by their masters for money.

The Bucks of America joined the Continental army. They fought in the Boston vicinity, but there are no named battles. Most of their work was probably done as a police force.When the Revolutionary war ended, the Bucks were presented with a flag by Governor John Hancock and his son, John George Washington Hancock. It depicted a pine tree with a brown buck. Thirteen stars are in the upper left corner. Above the tree, there is a banner with the initials J.G.W.H. At first the initials were thought to be John Hancock embracing George Washington. Further research revealed that they are the initials of the governor's son, who died at the age of eight from an ice-skating accident.

After the war, the Bucks went back to their lives as they were before the Revolution. The slaves were recalled to their masters, and George Middleton went back to his house in Boston. Although little is known about the Bucks of America, we honor their strength, their courage, their bravery, and the role they played in the Revolutionary War.

Nero Hawley, Soldier and Scout

Nero Hawley by Sofia G.


Nero Hawley was very brave and he made a big difference in the Revolutionary War.

Nero Hawley was born into slavery and had a terrible childhood. He was born in 1742 and he was given to Daniel Hawley at the age of seventeen and took on his last name. Hawley worked at a grist mill, a cider mill, and a brick making place. All were the property of Daniel Hawley.

Nero Hawley had many roles in the Revolutionary War. Hawley was in the Continental Army because he fought for the freedom that he was promised. He fought in the battle of
Montmouth and the battle of Stony Point. Hawley also spent the winter of 1777-1778 in Valley Forge. Most of Hawley's duties were as a scout.

After the war Nero Hawley settled down and had a easy life. Hawley got married to Peg,
a servant to Reverend James Beebee. He had seven children, five before he served in the army
and two afterwords. Hawley became a brick maker and eventually owned five acres of land. He
got paid forty dollars every year. Hawley died in 1817 at the age of seventy five, a free slave.
Nero Hawley was considered a Revolutionary hero. He deserves to be recognized by
everyone.

Catherine Moore Barry, Everyday Hero

Catherine Moore Barry by Tiffany
Catherine Moore Barry, spy and Patriot message bearer, was known for her heroism in the Battle of Cowpens. She showed that women can help win a battle with out fighting in it.

Little is known about Catherine Moore Barry's childhood. Born on Walnut Grove Manor,
in 1752, she was born to Charles and Mary Moore, and was the eldest of ten children. In 1767,
Moore married Andrew Barry at age fifteen. Moore and Andrew Barry then settled in Spartanburg County,
about two miles from where Catherine was born.

Barry had a significant role in the Battle of Cowpens. When Barry was called by General
Morgan for help against the British Loyalist, Barry quickly agreed. She helped get more soldiers
for Morgans troops. Then, with Barry's help General Morgan laid a trap for their enemy. Later
on, Morgan won the battle.

After the battle, Barry was known as Kate Barry. In 1823 Barry died. She was buried in a
family cemetery, next to her husband, Andrew.

Though little is know about Catherine Moore Barry's life after the Revolution , her
devotion to the Battle of Cowpens should be recognized more.

Lemuel Haynes, Minuteman and Theologian


Lemuel Haynes by Annie

Lemuel Haynes played a important part in the Revolutionary War, but he was also revolutionary, himself.

Little is known about Lemuel Haynes's childhood, but what we do know is that it was very difficult from the start. Born on July 18, 1753 in West Hartford, Connecticut to a white mother and black father, his father abandoned him when he was a newborn. His mother gave him up to the Indentured Servitude of Granville, Massachusetts at the age of five months. He learned
to read and write when he was very young and he particularly liked reading the Bible as well as books on theology.

Lemuel Haynes had a mostly unknown but important role in the Revolutionary War. Haynes joined the minutemen of Granville, Massachusetts at the age of twenty one right after his
indentured servitude ended. During the war, Haynes decided to write poetry and essays about
freedom. Haynes wrote a essay called Liberty Further Extended . He also marched with the
militia of Granville and fought in the Battle of Lexington. Then, in 1776, he joined the Granville
Militia in capturing Fort Ticonderoga.

Lemuel Haynes's life after the war was a pleasant one. Since his owner was wealthy he
Haynes received a decent education he was able to do more than other people in his situation.
Haynes turned down the opportunity to study at Dartmouth University and decided to Latin and
Greek with clergymen in Connecticut, He received a license to preach. In the 1780's, he became
a minister in Vermont. Then he, married a white school teacher, Elizabeth Babbitt and they had
ten children and moved to South Granville, New York so he could become a preacher, which he
was for the last eleven years of his life. Haynes died on September 28 1833.

Lemuel Haynes made a great difference in a great many battles. Haynes achieved a lot of
things people like him wish they had the chance to accomplish. People also didn't know where to
go after being a indentured servant but Lemuel Haynes used the little education he received. He
also learned about himself after getting the education he wanted he found that he had a love of
theology and the Bible so he followed that love and decided to become a minister. Lemuel
Haynes knew want he wanted to do and did it he was motivated and determined and he should be
recognized far more than he is today.

Peter Salem, Minuteman and Hero of Bunker Hill

Peter Salem by Kyley R.


Though Peter Salem is mostly known for his role serving at The Battle of Bunker Hill, he played a significant role in the Revolution that helped lead to America's success.

Peter Salem had a difficult childhood as an African-American slave. He was born in Framingham, Massachusetts in 1750. Salem was born into an enslaved family owned by Jeremiah Belknap. In around 1775, he was sold to Lawson Buckminster. The names and occupations of his parents are not known. Salem did not have a last name so his first owner, Jeremiah Belknap, is believed to name him Salem after his previous
residence in Salem, Massachusetts. Lawson Buckminster freed Salem to let him enlist in Captain Simon Edgel's "minutemen". He was one of the only African-American men
to be a part of the company.

Peter Salem successfully served in the American Revolution and participated in important battles. Salem fought in in four battles in all; The Battle of Concord, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Battle of Saratoga, and the Battle of Stony Point. On June 17, Salem shot and killed British Major John Pitcairn during the battle of Bunker Hill. Many people recognized Salem's act, and the musket he used to kill Major Pitcairn
is now in an exhibit at the Museum of the Battle of Bunker Hill.

Peter Salem had a quiet life after his service. Salem went to live in Leicester, Massachusetts, and built a cabin to live in after he finished serving in the army. He married Katy Benson in September, 1783. Together, they did not have any children. After they married, they both became cane weavers. Peter Salem died on
August 16, 1816 at age of sixty-six. In 1882, a monument was put up in Framingham,Massachusetts, his birthplace, to commemorate him at the Old Burying Ground.

Brave and successful, Peter Salem played a significant role in the American Revolutionary War that contributed to America's freedom.

"Mad" Anne Bailey, Messenger Scout

Anne Bailey by Samantha C.
Often misunderstood, Anne Bailey was tough, unique and played a great role in the Revolutionary War.

Not a lot is known about Anne Bailey before she turned eighteen. Bailey was born in Liverpool, England in 1742. She was poor, but still learned to read and write by a young age.Both of her parents died when she was eighteen years old and at age nineteen she sailed to the colony of Virginia. At age twenty-three, Bailey married Patriot Richard Trotter.

Bailey's life changed when the Revolutionary War began. Bailey's husband died in 1774 when he participated in the Battle of Point Pleasant. Bailey swore to avenge her husband's death.
She began to wear men's clothing and taught herself to shoot a gun. She volunteered as a scout messenger. A scout messenger is a person who delivers messages from one camp to another. One
day when delivering a message, the Shawnee Indians saw her. They tried to capture her, so she hid in a log and no one ever found her. Some of the Shawnee Indians even sat on the log. They took her horse and left. That night, Bailey snuck into their tribe and stole her horse back. When she was far enough away she yelled and the Shawnee Indians thought she was possessed. She
never had to worry about them again. Bailey then traveled with a militia.

When Bailey's second husband died, she left the service and she became a hermit. She
continued to be a messenger for the Patriot cause. In her old age she moved in with her son; then,
she built a cabin next door. She died November 22, 1825.

Though different, Anne Bailey broke stereotypes of women through 1742 to 1825.

Margaret Corbin, First Woman to Receive a Military Pension for Service

Margaret Corbin by Keshini


Margaret Corbin was a woman who risked her life for freedom in the Revolutionary
War.

Quite a lot is known about Margaret Corbin, then known as Margaret Cochran's very hard childhood. Born close to Chambersberg, Pennsylvania on November 12,1751 to
Robert and Sarah Cochran, Cochran experienced sadness right from her first days. In an American Indian attack in 1756, her father died and her mother was captured never to be seen
again. Cochran and her brother John were not home during the time of the attack because they were visiting an uncle who later raised both children. In 1772, she married Virginia farmer John
Corbin.

Corbin had an important role for women in the American Revolution. Four
years after Corbin and her husband were married, John Corbin decided to go to war. Margaret
Corbin was a camp follower and helped him and the other soldiers by cooking and doing
laundry. John Corbin was loading cannons in the Battle of Fort Washington on November
16,1776 and Margaret Corbin went with him onto the battlefield. When John Corbin and his
partner were both killed, Margaret Corbin took over their cannon and fired away until she herself
was badly injured. Later, a doctor came onto the battlefield looking for people who were still
alive and found her in critical condition. She was ferried across the river to Fort Lee and then
taken in a jolting wagon to Philadelphia. She suffered life changing injuries in the jaw, left arm,
and chest. In 1779 Corbin was the first woman to receive a military pension from Continental
Congress for her service.

After the Revolution, Corbin lived a difficult life. Corbin had trouble with everyday
activities because of her injuries and needed special help. She was a social outcast and did not
get along with the other women in her village. She also did not have enough money, even with
her pension, which was half of a man's that she received in 1779. Corbin later remarried a
wounded soldier, but he passed away a year later. The Philadelphia Society for Women wanted to
make a monument for her honoring her as the first heroine of the Battle of Fort Washington, but
when they met her they found out she was a women who drank and smoked too much and
decided to cancel the monument. She died on January 16,1800 just before her fiftieth birthday
and is buried at West Point Military Academy. Near the place of where she fought, in Fort Tryon
Park in New York City a bronze plate celebrates her life."the first American woman to take a
soldiers part in the War for Liberty."

Through personal sacrifice, Margaret Corbin proved to be just as much of a hero as any
man. She didn't care about stereotypes and fought hard in the Battle of Fort Washington. She
should be recognized more for her devotion and acts of heroism in the American Revolution.

Richard Allen, Founding Father

Richard Allen by Abby M.
Richard Allen by Abby M.

Richard Allen may not have fought in the Revolutionary War, but he did have a Revolutionary life as one of America's Black Founders.

Richard Allen had many hardships in his life, but as he grew older he overcame his challenges. Allen was born a slave and was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1760. His owner, Benjamin Chew, had financial trouble and had to sell
Richard and his family to Stokeley Sturgis. When slaves went to church, they had to sit next to their owner and this is exactly what Allen did. What Benjamin Chew and Stokeley Sturgis didn't know is that soon Allen would be founding a church.

Allen was very religious from the beginning to the end of his free life. After he bought himself out of slavery, he opened his first American Methodist Church in 1794 and a while after that he was elected Bishop of the church. He was revolutionary at the time because he allowed blacks and whites into his church to worship. Allen was a different religion when he was a boy and a slave, but he changed to Christian. Allen died still founding the
church he was bishop of in 1831.

Richard Allen helped many people and had many accomplishments in his life. This summary of his life is to let his legend live on.

Daughters of Liberty, Superheroes

Daughters of Liberty by Anais B.
Tough is a word usually associated with men, but it can be easily associated with the Daughters of Liberty. Much like superheroes, they did a lot for America with little recognition.

Important figures in the Daughters of Liberty included Abigail Adams, Deborah Sampson, and Sarah Franklin Bache. They were proud Patriots and did not hesitate to volunteer to find a way to serve in the Revolutionary War. The Daughters of Liberty did not support the English and protested the use of
taxes on British goods by boycotting all British goods, such as tea.

Right when the war began, The Daughters of Liberty started a society with strong plans and opinions.They had an active and important role in the Revolutionary War. They wore red,
white, blue, and flag shaped buckles on their shoes to remind others that they were Patriots. The Daughters of Liberty held massive boycotts of British goods and protested the use of taxes. Instead of buying items, The Daughters made their own clothing, tea and food. They also stopped merchants from hoarding and overpricing goods. In 1777, one hundred women forced a
merchant that was hoarding coffee, to hand over his keys to his warehouse. The women stocked
their wagon with coffee and marched off because he was not being a fair merchant. Sometimes a
protest was unplanned, for example, one girl, Susan Boudinot, when visiting the royal governor
of New Jersey, was offered a cup of tea. She accepted the drink and put it to her mouth.
However, she suddenly realized she was about to drink British tea, then curtsied and tossed it out
the window.

The Daughters of Liberty's existence was tied to the war; once the war ended so did they.
The challenge they faced had been resolved. Most of the women lived for another twenty years.
Deborah Sampson continued to fight for patriotic causes and Abigail Adams lived a full active
life after the war being First Lady and writing many books.

Even though The Daughters of Liberty are long gone, their cause lives on. Like any
superhero, the Daughters of Liberty will be back when their country needs them most.

Monday, April 22, 2013

The Iroquois Tribe

The Iroquois Tribe by Mimi

If you thought that only Americans and Europeans fought in the Revolutionary War, then you are wrong.

The earliest record we have of the Iroquois Tribe is the 16th century or earlier. The Iroquois was not just one tribe, but many. The original Iroquois was known as the Five Nations.Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca joined together in harmony. In 1722, a sixth nation joined. The Tuscarora Tribe arrived, officially making the Iroquois the Six Nations. There is a Grand Council made up of fifty hereditary sachems to make laws and to keep peace.

The Iroquois played a role in the Revolutionary War. At first the Great Council had a hard time deciding which side to be on, and decided to remain neutral. Then the Mohawk chief named Thayendanega, commonly known as Joseph Brant, wanted to fight for the British because he was angry at the Patriots for taking their land. He said they would take even more land if they ruled this land by themselves. He persuaded the Mohawk, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Cayuga to follow
him. The Oneida and Tuscarora were the only Iroquois who fought for the Patriots because they
were not convinced. An important battle the Iroquois fought in was The Battle of Oristany. They
helped bring down southern New York and northern Pennsylvania.

After the war, Americans were mad at the Iroquois for not fighting for them, so they
retaliated. In a raging frenzy, Americans destroyed and burned down villages, driving the
Iroquois out. Since the Oneida and Tuscarora were the only tribes that did not fight for the
British, they were allowed to flee with no harm. One of the Iroquois's most sacred beliefs is that
they consider themselves as a sovereign nation, not just another ethnic group in America.
Even though the Iroquois has scattered, their descendants still live on.

Wentworth Chesswell: Soldier, Scholar, Founder of the New Market Library

Wentworth Cheswell by Tess B.
Wentworth Cheswell was brave and was an important figure in the Revolution. He was a
man of many traits and was very determined to do well.

Cheswell was well educated and had a very good childhood. He was born
April 11, 1746 in New Market, New Hampshire as a free man. Cheswell attended the Dummer
Academy in Byfield, Massachusetts. There he learned Greek, Latin, reading, writing, and
arithmetic as well as swimming and horsemanship. After graduating from Dummer Academy he
went back to New Market and became a school master. On September 13, 1767 he married
seventeen-year-old Mary Davis from Durham, New Hampshire. They had thirteen children, Paul,
Thomas, Samuel, Sarah, Mary, Elizabeth, Nancy, Mehitable, William, Daughter (unknown),
Martha, Daughter (unknown), and Abigail. By 1770 he owned 114 acres of land.

Cheswell had many roles in the American Revolution. First, he was a messenger who
would carry information from the Committee of Safety to Exeter. Then, when Paul Revere
warned them about the British warship, he was one of the thirty men to defend Fort William and
Mary. Lastly, Cheswell enlisted for the patriotic cause and served under Colonel John Langdon
in a select group called Langdons Company of Light Horse Volunteer.After the war Cheswell was well respected and kept doing good deeds. Every year except one of the years of the remainder of his life he was elected a town role. Some of the town roles were selectman, auditor, assessor, and scrivener (scribe). In 1805 Cheswell and some other men built the first library in New Market called the New Market Social Library.

Cheswell died at seventy-one in 1817, a good man. Courageous, loyal to his country, and compassionate are some of the great traits of Cheswell that helped save lives during the American Revolution. Without Wentworth Cheswell the U.S. would never be where we are today. Cheswell's importance in the Revolutionary War was humongous and will never be as appreciated as it should be.

Nancy Ward, Peacemaker and Activist


Nancy Ward by Jill
Nancy Ward may be considered a traitor by the Cherokee people, but her decision to warn
colonists of a Cherokee attack may have changed the course of history. Nancy Ward was a
peaceful woman. She wanted to bring peace to her tribe and the settlers, but how could you do
both at the same time?

Ward was born into a powerful Cherokee family. She was born in 1738. Ward
lived in what is now eastern Tennessee. Her mother was the head of the family and her uncle was
a Cherokee chief. Ward worked for peace between the Cherokee and the settlers during the
Revolutionary War. Ward freed two prisoners to warn the settlers that the Cherokee were going
to attack. She told the Cherokee war council that the only way to survive was through peace.
She  freed Lydia Bean, a prisoner, and let her stay at her house until it was safe to go
back.

After the Revolutionary War, Nancy Ward continued to work for peace. The
Cherokee were going to attack the settlers again, so she met with the Cherokee leaders to
bring peace between Cherokee and the Settlers. After she met with the Cherokee leaders,
the Cherokee never attacked the Settlers. Nancy Ward also made public speeches to
inform people about peace.

Ward tried her hardest to make peace during and after the Revolutionary
War. She played a big role during and after the war. She freed prisoners, made speeches,
and warned the settlers. She was a woman who never stop reaching for her goal.




Mary Katherine Goddard, Freedom Printer

Mary Katherine Goddard, Freedom Printer by Anu

Mary Katherine Goddard didn't just print the first copy of the Declaration. She printed with the ink of freedom as we know it.

Mary Katherine Goddard was born to Sarah Updike Goddard with her younger brother, William Goddard, on June 16th, 1738. The siblings were raised in New London, Connecticut. Since both the parents were printers, their children has a longtime interest in the business also. After the

death of Goddard's father, she started to help their mother with business, and not long after, her
brother also started to help. This led to Goddard taking over the business when her mother died.
Her brother was frequently traveling, and could not generally help out.

Unlike her brother, Goddard did not get married and have children. This left her free to take the post
of the person who would do a very important job. It was to print the Declaration of
Independence, including all the signatures. This gave her a significant amount of power, and she
did her task well. She then got the job of being the Baltimore Postmaster as well as her other
printing job. Using the name M.K Goddard on her published works, she was most likely the first
woman to hold a position of power like this in all of the thirteen colonies.

Many historians agree that out of a fit of jealousy and rage, "William most likely forced his sister
to quit - there is record of her filing five lawsuits against him at that time." This caused a huge
political uproar. 200 of the leading businessmen in Baltimore came forward and tried to get her
back, and George Washington was informed of this. But he refused to intervene. Since Goddard
had no choice but to go, she lost one source of income. But then she was also pushed out of the
Baltimore Postmaster job, in favor of a male. Reluctantly, she left and opened her own bookshop.
Goddard ran it until 1809/1810. She died peacefully in 1816, at age 78. She was buried in the
graveyard of St. Paul's Parish.

Mary Catherine Goddard was much respected and beloved by many people. Thomas Jefferson
even admired her for her abilities. She was lost in the sea of history a long time ago, but I hope
by writing this, I can make her resurface, and let her achievement be honored once more.


Salem Poor, Soldier

Salem Poor by Bella R.
Salem Poor's service at the Battle of Bunker Hill defied the stereotypes held of blacks at the time of the Revolutionary War.

He was born into slavery in 1742, but was bought as an infant in Salem Massachusetts, and was taken in by the Abbott family. The exact date is not known, but some time after Poor was
purchased by John Poor. In 1769, at age twenty-seven, Salem used twenty-seven pounds (the average pay of a year of work.) to buy his freedom. Two years later, he married Nancy Parker
and they had a child in late 1774. He left his son at a young age in order fight in the Revolutionary War.

Salem Poor is best known for his gallant acts at Bunker Hill, June 17 1775. Poor was said to have fought "excellently" at his first battle. He shot and killed English Colonel Abercrombie. After the the battle, this amazing soldier received fourteen petitions and was described by an experienced officer as well as an excellent soldier, by the officers. After fighting at Bunker Hill, the battle, he served the Continental Army, until about 1780.

After fighting for his country, Poor married Mary Twing in 1780, and the couple moved
to Providence, Rhode Island. He was briefly put in jail for the Breach of Peace. He died of
poverty in 1802, at the age of sixty. After his death, Salem Poor was honored with a ten
cent stamp.

Salem Poor may have influenced people in a way that may have made them think
differently about African-Americans. He was a brave solider who believed in his country, and
had faith all through out the war. He showed this by buying his freedom to fight, killing an
English officer, fighting for the Continental Army, and doing the Breach of Peace. Only a
someone very loyal to there country's freedom could do all that in just one lifetime.

Phillis Wheatley, Poet

Phillis Wheatley by Jamison T.


When one thinks of poems one might think of love, pain, tragedies, and occasionally laughter, but Phillis Wheatley showed that poems can be used to advocate for a cause.
 Phillis Wheatley had a life that differed from the majority of most black slaves during that time period.  Phillis Wheatley was born in 1753-5. Wheatley was sold in 1761, and was bought by Susan and Jon Wheatley, who named her after the ship she came from. Wheatley lost connection with her family in Africa after being captured. The only thing she remembers of her mother was her mother pouring water before sunrise, it was a traditional West African ritual.  Wheatley was educated by one of the Wheatley daughters.  The Wheatley's treated Phillis Wheatley as one of their own.
 Phillis Wheatley spoke Latin and Greek. Wheatley used her poetry to help the colonist during the American Revolutionary War because she was a very strong supporter of freedom in the colonies. She wrote a poem that was very political. Wheatley also wrote poems in a colonist's point of view. In March, 1776 Wheatley read a poem to General George Washington. She thought slavery was one of the reason's there is conflict in America. In 1768 she wrote a poem for King George III, To the King's Most Majesty, because he terminated the Stamp Act. Phillis Wheatley made many poems and plays that showed her support for the American Revolutionary War.
 Phillis Wheatley married a free African-American grocer named John Peters. They had two children who passed away as infants. He left Wheatley when she was pregnant with their third child. Wheatley passed away because of childbirth complications at the age of thirty-one years old. The child passed away only hours after Wheatley's death.  Although Wheatley did not die wealthy, she is still remembered for her inspiring writing.

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Mercy Otis Warren, Playwright

Mercy Otis Warren by Colleen C. 
Mercy Otis Warren by C. C.


Mercy Otis Warren expressed her love and passion in and the Patriots by using a pencil and her words.

Mercy Otis Warren had a very educational early life which foreshadowed her part in the Revolutionary War. She was born on September 16, 1728 in West Barnstable, Massachusetts to James Otis and Mary Allyne. When Warren was little she would sit in her brother James' "Jemmy's" tutor lessons because girls at
that time didn't have a proper education. Jonathon Russel, the Reverend of the local parish would give Warren books and counseling. When she was older she went to Harvard where she married her husband and cousin, James Warren.

Mercy Otis Warren had a great impact in the Revolutionary War because of her love for writing. Warren would try to persuade the Loyalists to be Patriots by writing plays, books, and poems, but would never sign her name to her books.
When she wrote, Warren would make the Patriots heroes and the Loyalists
villains. Everyone thought this was outrageous, but nobody knew who to blame.
Warren opened her house to the Patriots and named her house "One Liberty
Square" in Plymouth, where everyone could talk about politics.
After the Revolutionary War, Warren continued to write on. Her husband,
James, cheered her on to write, along with her lifetime friends, Abigail and
Samuel Adams. She started writing the first three volumes of Revolutionary War
history in 1758 at age thirty. In 1805, at age seventy-seven, she finally published
her three volumes after twenty-seven years of writing her books. Her name was
finally signed to her books for the first time. Her name was out! Mercy Otis
Warren died ten years after her book was published on October 19, 1814.

"The waves have rolled upon me, the billows are repeatedly broken over
me, yet I am not sunk down," Warren once wrote. She truly followed her passion
of writing throughout her life.